Early County was created in 1818 from land obtained from the Creek Indians. The counties of Calhoun, Clay, Decatur, Dougherty, Grady, Miller, Mitchell, and Seminole were all created from territory originally belonging to Early County.
In the north central part of Early County is a row of mounds of Native American origin dating to around the year 800. One mound believed to have been a temple base is the largest in the United States. Kolomoki Mounds State Park preserves the site. A museum within the park contains artifacts depicting the indigenous cultural history since about 5000 B.C.
As with many counties in Southwest Georgia, peanut farming is a vital component of Early County’s economy. Early County is the largest peanut quota holding county in the nation. In recognition of this crop’s importance, a statue of a peanut was erected on the square in Blakely, a city in the county, in 1954.